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By Nocturn~清流 from 安見閣(


CH1 Alternative religions in perspective
  • alternative – away from Christianity
  • Globalization
  • religion more sycretic
  • Christian believer is declining
  • embrace aspects of religiosity from other cultures
  • (from Christian perspective)
  • alternative fills the spiritual “gap”
  • trend: religion secularization, transformation of religious faith into many private and individual practices, “new voluntarism”
  • (religion still exists, but not the traditional version)
  • outside historical tradition, antagonistic to established religion

CH2 Cult

  • Audience cults, client cults and cult movement
  • Psychopathology model, entrepreneurial model and subculture/evolution model
  • Anti-cultist
  • not that much brainwashing thing
  • 独立主流church,独立非主流sect,非独立主流denomination,非独立非主流cult

CH3 Sectarianism

  • Deprivation (economic, social…) leads to sects appearance.So sects are foremost a response to the problems of social dislocation and a failure to develop a sense of belonging to wider society.
  • Sects are exclusive, restrict, rigid and require strong commitments of its members.
  • Christian sects: Brethren movement兄弟会, Christadelphian基督弟兄会, Mormon, Jehovah’s Witnesses(Watchtower movement), Quakers震颤派, Seventh-day adventists基督复临安息日会, Swedenborgians新耶路撒冷教会/徒斯威登堡教, Unitarians一位论派, Worldwide Church of God普世神教会

CH4 Christian Fundamentalist

  • 基要主义影响范围在扩大,并扩散到教育、媒体等行业,但在并未在政治和公众认同上取得大进步。
  • 基要主义是社会两极分化动荡加剧人希望带回社会稳定的一种需求和手段。
  • 新教基要主义在美国逐渐流行,主要是福音派,并由于西方国家的经济政治优势而将西方意识形态及宗教同时传入其他发展中国家。
  • 天主教擅长维持统一性,所以基要主义多发生在内部,亦有一些颇有争议的教会和个人在其中出现。

CH5 Pentecostalism(五旬节/灵恩运动) and movements of Christian renewal

  • Charismatic movement 新灵恩运动 1953 (第二次)
  • 灵恩运动作为基督教复兴运动,渗透到天主教和新教教会的各个领域。
  • *就是讲称义之后拿圣灵灌顶(第二次洗礼)就能成圣,灌完就能出奇迹,能治病,还能说方言……诸如此类,而且一共三波,越闹越玄乎。
  • 在非洲、拉丁美洲和远东发展迅速,有取代天主教之势。尤其第三世界国家发展迅速。
  • The appeal of contemporary Pentecostalism in Third World countries has been interpreted by David Martin as a result of its ability to offer a popularized form of (largely) Protestant Christianity, which satisfies the requirements of the impoverished masses.
  • The main contradition is that it appears to resist secularizing forces while simultaneously endorsing some aspects of present day culture.
  • Try to restore spiritual power and archetypal religious experiences。有人认为其为基要主义复兴的一部分。
  • Charistmatic教堂会做很多商业化的marketing和fundraising,在从其他传统教堂拉信众。
  • Alpha course是该运动的一部分。
  • 灵恩运动并非一个很整体的运动,也有很多内部的小运动存在。
  • Restorationism 复原主义 企图恢复基督教到原来新约那样
  • Reconstructionism 重建神学 注重政治社会运动,靠政治经济法律手段让社会运行全部符合旧约,在地上建立千年王国
  • 黑人灵恩教堂在灵恩运动中很著名,吸引很多社会底层人。在美国灵恩运动主要领导基本都是黑人或白人底层人,很多人是受”health and wealth gospel”影响来的,已偏离灵恩运动原意。

CH6 New Religious Movements (NRM)

  • 三种: world-rejecting movement, world-affirming movement(现在最流行), world-accommodating movement(前两者都占一点)
  • 1960s到1970s开始于西欧和美国,新兴宗教逐渐扩散到世界,有成的也有消亡的,实际上很难统计
  • 可能解释:Product of counter-culture rebellion of the 1960s, able to provide a firm set of moral standards at a time when Western society was finding it increasingly difficult to do so,provide an alternative basis of belonging in a largely rootless culture, search for self-identity
  • 成功之路:变有钱(教徒捐款之类的),不那么严格并顺应当地文化,和别的相似教派联合,证明自己世俗成功(有钱,和有权者相交),证明自己和传统宗教有深关系
  • 底层人不太参加world-rejecting,都是中层或中上层参加,偏年轻一点;比较有钱的人还有年纪大点的人会参加world-affirming,因为他们就喜欢世界是现在这样;world-accommodating基本提供普通人一个“过属灵生活”的机会的感觉。
  • 不管是正经教堂还是NRM都是女的多。有时候NRM可以帮女人树立她们更适合更喜欢的identity。
  • Learning processes: predisposing factors, attraction, incipient involvement, active involvement, commitment
  • 基本上就是个人遇到一些问题,找解决方法,遇到了宗教,然后宗教同时又削弱他其他人际关系,最后就成为特别忠诚的成员。
  • Disengagement:跟外界人员建立联系,组织不能满足成员需要,转化没有像组织说的那样成功发生,主要成员需求不能满足,和领导意见不一(感情因素也很重要)

CH7 Some major New Religious Movements

  • Christian origin: The Family, The Messianic Communities, The Jesus Fellowship, The Central London Church of Christ
  • Hinduism origin: The Divine Light Mission, The International Society for Krishna Consciousness, Sai Baba, Shri Swaminarayan, Brahma Kumaris, Healthy Happy Holy Organization
  • Islam origin: Subud, The Baha’i Faith
  • Syncretic: The Unification Church, Rastafarianism, Rajneeshes

CH8 The New Age

  • The emphasis then, is on the self and self-discovery within a holistic frame of reference which embraces the universe and this world through an essential “truth” and unity.
  • Ultimacy – God, the Goddess, the Higher Self – lies within, serving as the source of vitality, creativity, love, tranquillity, wisdom, responsibility, power and all those other qualities which are held to comprise the perfect inner life.
  • 主要集中在出版传媒,基本上没中心,运动也没有结构,内容混杂。
  • Religion in post-modernity?
  • Identity and empowerment
  • Creat pseudo-anthropological legitimization for many of the core beliefs and practices. This is evident in the broad conviction that earlier “simple” societies understood essential truths about healing power, gender, and the environment, which modern societies have lost. 基本上就是借用各种古代仪式,加上各地文化,再加上一些新思潮,来restore “truth”,不过就是这个其实是被重新发明出来的宗教有很多理想成分,未必真的符合历史上原来那个宗教。某种角度也可以说是把古代和现代的好东西都抓在一起了吧。
  • New Ager conclude that pre-modern cultures must be morally and ethically superior and had insights into workings of the material world now lost.
  • The contradition, as Bruce points out, is that New Agers combine criticism of the scientific and medical establishments with the belief that they are doing what will some day be recognized as science. Yet, the movement tends to have little interest in conventional notions of (scientific) testing.
  • 成分可能是:Eastern mysticism, New Age environmentalism, New Age feminism
  • New Age is open to those who have sufficient means to embark on voyages of self-discovery, 所以特别吸引大学教育或以上的中产阶级,尤其是expression professions(咨询师、艺术家、作家之类的)—bottom layer of the privileged classes。另外对女性比较有吸引力。
  • 因为吸引的都是expression professions,更容易传播,也少量进入了公众视野和日常政治经济生活中。
  • ultimate mix “n” match religion
  • 有实际应用价值,能提供就业机会,比如管理培训什么的
  • 世界范围来讲影响并不大,而且因为组织松散,究竟具体理性的想改变什么也不明确,也不太可能改变什么现实世界。
  • *说到底New Age其实也不过是个现象罢了,说到底都是现象而已……改学现象学算了……

CH9 Neo-Paganism and esoteric spiritualities

  • 内容上和New Age有相似性,但一般不认同New Age,即使其中的派别之间互相也不一定认同。
  • New Age比较多提Higher self之类的,而神秘主义和新异教崇拜比较多用神、女神或其他超自然力量。
  • 神秘主义和新异教崇拜者一般不追随某大师或者某本书,这一点也是与New Age较明确的分界线。
  • 极其多样化而且组织极其分散,参与者有虔诚信徒也有干脆就是来玩的。因为不原因institutionalize,基本上都没啥大组织,弄弄就没了。
  • Heathenism:北欧和德国系,有许多神话(奥丁系列),很多人使用rune,系统里有很多道德规范。
  • Wicca:欧洲最大的派别。
  • is essentially a mystery cult involving initiation and a subsequent path of personal fulfilment along with the development of psychic and magical ability.
  • 1951年英国通过Fraudulent Mediums Act,允许个人使用witchcraft
  • 现代wicca主要是Gerald Gardner(Rosicrucian成员,OTO创始人之一)搞出来的,以”Witchcraft Today”开始
  • Gardner之前:
  • 人类学家Margaret Murray “The Witch-cult in Western Europe” “The God of the Witches”,基本就是说Witch不崇拜恶魔,而是另一种古老宗教
  • Charles Leland’s “Aradia” (God of the Witches),是他跟一个意大利witch学完写的
  • Wicca重视古代传统,但其实也受很强的19世纪巫术复兴影响,Celt是主要,也有加玫瑰十字会和自由石匠内容,还有埃及和古典神话内容……主要是Celtic和Nordic,也有信希腊女神的。
  • 仪式中的象征性性交,对女性和性的积极态度
  • Druid: one who knew or understrood oak
  • 崇拜树,亲近自然
  • 没什么古代文献,基本是基于celt传统的内容重造了一个
  • 大部分团体都是三级制
  • 有些团体比较偏男性,和wicca偏女性刚好相反,但这两种组织总的来说互相respect
  • Esoteric Movement,一个很宽的概念,什么都有,UFO都能往里算。讲到和大师沟通之类的,或者转世来教人什么的(这部分后来被New Age吸收了)。
  • Theosophy Track:
  • Theosophy Society最开始就是分享秘密知识的组织,谁都可以参加,目标是把人发展成god-like。
  • Anthroposophy,Rudolf,原来是theosophy成员,不过他比较讲发展人自身潜能而不是成神,特别重视耶稣受难和复活,企图弥合科学和宗教。
  • Alice Bailey,说和很多masters沟通过,都是各宗教的历史名人,不过基本讲的还是theosophy,她死后活动就散的比较散了。
  • Freemasonary:有古代源流,但基本上是18世纪活跃起来。完全排斥女性。有很强基督教尤其是十字军东征传统,非常仪式化。成员主要是商业中产阶级和特权阶级。
  • Rosicrucianism:追到1378年的Christian Rosenkreutz,不过其实是17世纪闹起来的。现在有很多不同的组织,不过全部都很难加入。教授内容基本属于Gnostic Christianity。
  • Contemporary esoteric movements
  • Golden Dawn,1888年开始变成和自由石匠和玫瑰十字会差不多的秘密结社,主要重视魔法理论和实践。外部成员主要学理论,升级到很高成为inner circle就能实际实施魔法。现在基本落在magical或者Christian mystical里面。
  • Builder of the Adytum,主要目标是发展完善的灵性高我,方法就是仪式魔法,讲的内容主要是卡巴拉和塔罗,还特别重视犹太托拉经文。
  • The Society of Inner Light,创始人Dion Fortune, 1922, 她原来是Stella Matutina成员,该组织是Golden Dawn一个分支。Dion在vision中见过基督和别的圣人,她主要是弄魔法,卡巴拉,基督教神秘学和塔罗,不过也有很强neo-pagan的成分。该组织最开始特别受Alice Bailey的Secret Masters影响,但现在更注重理解上帝的意图,实践自己的命运。内容包括The Mystic, The Hermetic和The Green Ray,总的来说就是ego就是与上帝分离,要理解上帝的意图,该组织很重视道德。
  • The Servants of the Light,1972由Society of Inner Light以前的一个叫W.E.Butler的人建立。起步主要是art of healing和一些神秘学基础,但升到最高级会做什么还不太清楚。主要内容是卡巴拉和西方神秘主义,也有埃及和希腊的思想,诺斯替,及新柏拉图主义。特别鼓励成员掌握世界各地神话,认为神话有灵性价值。
  • 文艺复兴和the Enlightment另魔法有了更多科学和系统化成分,尤其表现在Crowley的版本和卡巴拉的应用。

CH10 Popular forms of religiosity

CH11 Human potential and healing movements

  • Healthism, this term suggests not only a near cultural obsession with health as a matter of being free from sickness, but has come to denote a positive and proactive  attitude to health.
  • must also be understood with reference to taken-for-granted perceptions of the life course and the contemporary rational negotiation of the lifespan. For contemporary man, control of the environment and scientific progress through medical advance allows a confidence in fulfilling the natural lifespan, which limits the arbitrary and unpredictable aspects of human existence.
  • Focus on notions of growth at the level of the individual, culture, and spirituality; emphasize emotions and psychological dimensions
  • Heelas sees such healing as radically detraditionalized, anti-authoritarian, and informed by epistemological individualism.
  • Healing beliefs and techniques in New Age are extremely diverse.
  • Crystal healing, interpretation of dreams, hyponsis
  • Scientology(基督教科学学派,Dianetics戴提尼),NLP(对富人很有吸引力,内容比较接近科学,但training的实行方式和组织结构有点像东方宗教),Gestalt
  • Transendantal Meditation(TM)
  • Frustration with orthodox medical services, incurable chronic complaints, counter-culture experimentation, as well as a last resort for fatal illness, are all reasons why people turn to alternative medicine.
  • 东方系:Acupuncture(针灸),Shiatsu(指圧),Ayurveda(印度系统),Tai Chi(太极),Unani Tibb(南亚穆斯林系)
  • 西方系:Anthroposophical medicine, dowsing, color healing, aromatherapy, reiki(东方宗教传到西方的结果)


PS: 一样的模板支持问题,这个模板貌似就不支持列表。偶也没有任何办法,大家请贴到别处看吧。


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