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PS for my Chinese readers:这学期做了一个独立研究,方向是人格障碍诊断的文化差异。因为CCMD-3没有全英文版,为了研究方便把CCMD-3中的人格障碍诊断标准参考ICD-10和DSM-IV-TR全都翻成英文了。考虑可能有其他英语言国家的研究者会需要,所以发在这里。研究类似方向的朋友欢迎参考交流,普通读者尽请略过此篇。


I did a study in multicultural diagnosis of personality disorder (PD). Part of the study was to compare the three main mental health diagnostic manuals in the world (DSM-IV-TR, ICD-10, and CCMD-3) for their similarity and difference in PD diagnostic criteria . Since there is no full English version of CCMD-3, I translated the PD part in CCMD-3 into English for my own study according to DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10. I think perhaps someone else may need this too, so I post it here.

This is just a rough translation. I tried to make it precise and accurate, but it’s pretty difficult. So only for your reference. Feel free to contact me through nocturn_s7 at for any question or discussion.

Capella Zhuang


I marked some of the items when I studied them to help me remember the origin of each of them. (Just mention here so you know the marks are not from CCMD-3. I added them.)

Detailed Marks:

  • “(ICD)” : This item is similar to or straightly from an ICD-10 item.
  • “(ICD/2)” : Part of this item is similar to or straightly from one or several ICD-10 items. (In this case, the underlined words are the CCMD-3 original part.)
  • “(DSM)”: This item is similar to or straightly from a DSM-IV-TR item. (Actually, there is only one item like this.)
  • The items with no mark are CCMD-3 originals.


编码:60         人格障碍  Personality Disorder


Includes distinct deviate personalities which lead to forming of persistent deviate behavior patterns that are the expression of the individual’s characteristic lifestyle and mode of relating to others. The pattern deviates markedly from certain cultural background and common cognitive style (especially in relating to others), distinctly impacted one’s social and occupational function, has led to maladaption in social environment, and has caused the patient’s clinically significant distress. The maladaptive behavior pattern is difficult to change, though the patient has no mental retardation. Only a few of patients will improve in their adulthood. The disorder usually manifests since childhood or adolescence and continue throughout adulthood. Deviate personality caused by general medical condition (such as brain disease, brain damage, chronic alcohol intoxication and so on) or due to psychotic disorder should be referred as personality change rather than personality disorder.

【症状标准】Diagnostic Criteria


The individual’s characteristic and enduring patterns of inner experience and behavior as a whole deviate markedly from the culturally expected and accepted range (or “norm”). Such deviation must be manifested in more than one of the following areas:


cognition (i.e., ways of perceiving and interpreting things, people, and events; forming attitudes and images of self and others);


affectivity (range, intensity, and appropriateness of emotional arousal and response);


control over impulses and gratification of needs;


manner of relating to others.


The pattern of deviate behavior has caused distress and social maladaption to the patient or others (i.e. the patient’s family members).


The disturbance begins in childhood or adolescence and lasts for at least 2 years. The patient is at least 18 years old.


The disturbance is not due to general medical condition or psychotic disorder.

60.1偏执性人格障碍Paranoid personality disorder [F60.0]


characterized by distrust and suspiciousness,  beginning by early adulthood, more common in males.

【诊断标准】Diagnostic Criteria


in conformity with the diagnostic criteria of personality disorder.


characterized by distrust and suspiciousness, and present as indicated by three (or more) of the following areas:


excessive sensitivity to setbacks and rebuffs.


unforgiving of insults and injures, persistently bears grudges.


suspiciousness and a pervasive tendency to distort experience by misconstruing the neutral or friendly actions of others as hostile or contemptuous


distinctly exceeding aggression and obsessive pursue of personal power.


pathological envy, excessive suspicions regarding fidelity of spouse or partner, but doesn’t account for paranoid.


excessive self-importance and self-center, preoccupied with doubts about being oppressed  or suppressed, persistently appeals to higher court or authorities.


perceives external environments and events as “conspiracy” or other unrealistic dominant ideas, hence excessively hostile and hypervigilant.

编码:60.2      分裂样人格障碍 Schizoid personality disorder  [F60.1]


characterized by eccentric perceptions, behaviors and dresses, emotional coldness, and distinct interpersonal deficits. slightly more common in males.

【诊断标准】Diagnostic Criteria


in conformity with the diagnostic criteria of personality disorder.


characterized by eccentric perceptions, behaviors and dresses, emotional coldness and  interpersonal deficits, and present as indicated by three (or more) of the following areas:


distinctly introvert (isolated, passive, withdrawal), detached from family and society; except for necessary living and working contact, rarely initiates social interaction; lack of close friends, preoccupation with fantasy and introspection.


flat facial expression, emotional coldness, or even unreasonable in dealing with people; unable to express caring, considerate, anger and so on.


Indifference to either praise  or criticism.


lack of sense of pleasure.


lack of intimate and trustful interpersonal relationship.


difficulty in conforming to social norms, which leads to peculiar behaviors.


lack of desire for sexual experiences with another person (given age).

编码:60.3      反社会性人格障碍 Dissocial personality disorder  [F60.2]


characterized by failure to conform to social norms, regularly violating laws and rules, and callous unconcern for others; more common in males. The patient usually has conduct issues before age 18, and the habit is carried into adulthood (after age 18). The main pattern is failure to conform to social norms, or even violating laws and rules.



in conformity with the diagnostic criteria of personality disorder, and present as indicated by three (or more) of the following areas:


gross and persistent attitude of irresponsibility and disregard for social norms, rules, and obligations. (i.e. unable to maintain long-term job or school, regular truant from job or school, changing job without planning ahead; violating social norms, and the conduct has constituted the cause of arrest.)


planless or impulsive behaviors (i.e. trip without planning ahead)


deceitfulness, repeated lying, use of aliases, cunning others for personal profit or pleasure.


irresponsible to others (i.e. refuse to honor financial obligations, repay debts, or provide for children or parents.)


Incapacity to maintain enduring relationships (i.e. unable to maintain marriage for more than 1 year.)


markedly prone to blame  others or to offer plausible rationalizations  for the behavior bringing the subject into social conflict.


very low tolerance to frustration and a low threshold for discharge of aggression, including violence.


highly irritable, has violent behaviors (i.e. repeated physical fights including beating spouse or children without reason.)


incapacity to experience guilt  and to profit from experience, particularly punishment.


evidences of conduct disorder before age 18 present as indicated by three (or more) of the following areas:


repeatedly violates family or school rules.


repeated lying (not to avoid physical punishment).


habitual smoking or drinking.


has been physically cruel to animal or weak peers.


repeated stealing.


is often truant from school.


has stayed out at night without explaining to family members at least twice.


premature sexual activity.


has repeatedly engaged in destroying public property.


has repeatedly provoked or engaged in physical fights.


has been expelled or suspended from school due to conduct against rules.


has been detained or disciplined by public security.

编码:60.4      冲动性人格障碍(攻击性人格障碍) Impulsive personality disorder [F60.30]


characterized by emotional explosion with distinct impulsive behavior, more common in males.



in conformity with the diagnostic criteria of personality disorder.


characterized by emotional explosion with distinct impulsive behavior, and present as indicated by three (or more) of the following areas:


marked tendency to quarrelsome behavior and to conflicts with others, especially when impulsive acts are thwarted or criticized.


liability to outbursts of anger  or violence, with inability to control the resulting behavioral explosions.


distinctly impaired ability to plan and foresee.


difficulty in maintaining any course of action that offers no immediate reward


unstable and capricious mood.


disturbances in and uncertainty about self-image, aims, and internal preferences (including sexual)


liability to become involved in intense and unstable relationships, often leading to emotional crisis.


recurrent threats or acts of self-harm or suicide.

编码:60.5表演性(癔症性)人格障碍 Histrionic (hysterical )personality disorder [F60.4]


Characterized by excessive emotionality and attention-seeking behavior.



in conformity with the diagnostic criteria of personality disorder.


characterized by excessive emotionality and attention-seeking behavior, and present as indicated by three (or more) of the following areas:


self-dramatization, theatricality, exaggerated expression of emotions.


shallow and labile affectivity.


self-centered, self-indulging without consideration of others.


continual seeking for excitement and activities in which the patient is the center of attention.


persistent longing for praise, emotionally vulnerable.


over-concern with physical attractiveness to satisfy one’s own needs.


suggestibility, easily influenced by others.

编码:60.6      强迫性人格障碍 Anankastic personality disorder [F60.5]


characterized by excessive need of carefulness, orderliness, and perfectionism, and strong internal sense of insecurity; more common in males (2 times of females), 70% of OCD patients have anankastic personality disorder.



in conformity with the diagnostic criteria of personality disorder.


characterized by excessive demand of carefulness, orderliness, and perfectionism, and strong internal sense of insecurity, and present as indicated by three (or more) of the following areas:


indecisiveness, suspiciousness and exceeding carefulness caused by internal sense of insecurity.


need of repetitively planning ahead for every activity.


repetitively checks everything, preoccupied with details up to the point of ignoring the overall situation.


distress caused by recurrent intrusive thoughts and impulses, but hasn’t reach the criteria of obsessive-compulsive disorder.


excessive conscientiousness, scrupulousness, and undue preoccupation with productivity to the exclusion of pleasure and interpersonal relationships.


rigidity and stubbornness, insistence by the individual that others submit exactly to his or her way of doing things.


distinctly conservative, lack of ability to express interpersonal warmth.

编码:60.7      焦虑性人格障碍 Anxious personality disorder [F60.6]


characterized by persistent feeling of tension, anxiety and fear, sense of insecurity, and feelings of inadequacy; need of being liked and accepted, hypersensitive to rejection and criticism; marked tendency in avoiding certain activities due to habitually exaggeration of potential dangers in one’s daily environment.

【诊断标准】Diagnostic Criteria


in conformity with the diagnostic criteria of personality disorder.


characterized by persistent and general feeling of tension and feeling of anxiety, and present as indicated by three (or more) of the following areas:


persistent self-sensitivity, sense of insecurity and feelings of inadequacy.


hypersensitive to criticism and rejection.


persistently pursues being accepted and welcomed.


unwillingness to become involved with people unless certain of being accepted and not being criticized.


habitually exaggerates potential dangers in life to the point of avoiding certain activities, but not due to phobia.


restrictions in lifestyle because of need to have security and stableness.

编码:60.8      依赖性人格障碍 Dependent personality disorder [F60.7]

【诊断标准】Diagnostic Criteria


in conformity with the diagnostic criteria of personality disorder.


characterized by excessively dependent, and present as indicated by three (or more) of the following areas:


require or allow others to take responsibility for the patient’s important aspect of life.


subordination of one’s own needs to those of others on whom one is dependent, and undue compliance with their wishes.


unwillingness to make even reasonable demands on the people one depends on.


feeling helpless, inadequate, or lack of energy.


preoccupation with fears of being abandoned, persistently asking for guarantee, feeling uncomfortable being alone.


feeling helpless and destroyed when ending an intimate relationship.


push one’s responsibility to others in facing difficulty.


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