Diagnostic Criteria of Personality Disorder in CCMD-3(CCMD-3人格障碍诊断标准 英译版)

Posted by on Apr 16, 2011 in Blog, Portfolio, 千夜谈 | 1 comment

PS for my Chinese readers:这学期做了一个独立研究,方向是人格障碍诊断的文化差异。因为CCMD-3没有全英文版,为了研究方便把CCMD-3中的人格障碍诊断标准参考ICD-10和DSM-IV-TR全都翻成英文了。考虑可能有其他英语言国家的研究者会需要,所以发在这里。研究类似方向的朋友欢迎参考交流,普通读者尽请略过此篇。

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I did a study in multicultural diagnosis of personality disorder (PD). Part of the study was to compare the three main mental health diagnostic manuals in the world (DSM-IV-TR, ICD-10, and CCMD-3) for their similarity and difference in PD diagnostic criteria . Since there is no full English version of CCMD-3, I translated the PD part in CCMD-3 into English for my own study according to DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10. I think perhaps someone else may need this too, so I post it here.

This is just a rough translation. I tried to make it precise and accurate, but it’s pretty difficult. So only for your reference. Feel free to contact me through nocturn_s7 at hotmail.com for any question or discussion.

Capella Zhuang

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I marked some of the items when I studied them to help me remember the origin of each of them. (Just mention here so you know the marks are not from CCMD-3. I added them.)

Detailed Marks:

  • “(ICD)” : This item is similar to or straightly from an ICD-10 item.
  • “(ICD/2)” : Part of this item is similar to or straightly from one or several ICD-10 items. (In this case, the underlined words are the CCMD-3 original part.)
  • “(DSM)”: This item is similar to or straightly from a DSM-IV-TR item. (Actually, there is only one item like this.)
  • The items with no mark are CCMD-3 originals.

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编码:60         人格障碍  Personality Disorder

诊断标准:指人格特征明显偏离正常,使病人形成了一贯的反映个人生活风格和人际关系的异常行为模式。这种模式显著偏离特定的文化背景和一般认知方式(尤其在待人接物方面),明显影响其社会功能与职业功能,造成对社会环境的适应不良,病人为此感到痛苦,并已具有临床意义。病人虽然无智能障碍,但适应不良的行为模式难以矫正,仅少数病人在成年后程度上可有改善。通常开始于童年期或青少年期,并长期持续发展至成年或终生。如果人格偏离正常系由躯体疾病(如脑病、脑外伤、慢性酒中毒等)所致,或继发于各种精神障碍应称为人格改变。

Includes distinct deviate personalities which lead to forming of persistent deviate behavior patterns that are the expression of the individual’s characteristic lifestyle and mode of relating to others. The pattern deviates markedly from certain cultural background and common cognitive style (especially in relating to others), distinctly impacted one’s social and occupational function, has led to maladaption in social environment, and has caused the patient’s clinically significant distress. The maladaptive behavior pattern is difficult to change, though the patient has no mental retardation. Only a few of patients will improve in their adulthood. The disorder usually manifests since childhood or adolescence and continue throughout adulthood. Deviate personality caused by general medical condition (such as brain disease, brain damage, chronic alcohol intoxication and so on) or due to psychotic disorder should be referred as personality change rather than personality disorder.

【症状标准】Diagnostic Criteria

个人的内心体验与行为特征(不限于精神障碍发作期)在整体上与其文化所期望和所接受的范围明显偏离,这种偏离是广泛、稳定和长期的,并至少有下列1项:

The individual’s characteristic and enduring patterns of inner experience and behavior as a whole deviate markedly from the culturally expected and accepted range (or “norm”). Such deviation must be manifested in more than one of the following areas:

(1)认知(感知,及解释人和事物,由此形成对自我及他人的态度和形象的方式)的异常偏离;

cognition (i.e., ways of perceiving and interpreting things, people, and events; forming attitudes and images of self and others);

(2)情感(范围、强度,及适切的情感唤起和反应)的异常偏离;

affectivity (range, intensity, and appropriateness of emotional arousal and response);

(3)控制冲动及对满足个人需要的异常偏离;

control over impulses and gratification of needs;

(4)人际关系的异常偏离。

manner of relating to others.

【严重标准】特殊行为模式的异常偏离,使病人或其他人(如家属)感到痛苦或社会适应不良。

The pattern of deviate behavior has caused distress and social maladaption to the patient or others (i.e. the patient’s family members).

【病程标准】开始于童年、青少年期,现年18岁以上,至少已持续2年。

The disturbance begins in childhood or adolescence and lasts for at least 2 years. The patient is at least 18 years old.

【排除标准】人格特征的异常偏离并非躯体疾病或精神障碍的表现或后果。

The disturbance is not due to general medical condition or psychotic disorder.

60.1偏执性人格障碍Paranoid personality disorder [F60.0]

诊断标准:以猜疑和偏执为特点,始于成年早期,男性多于女性。

characterized by distrust and suspiciousness,  beginning by early adulthood, more common in males.

【诊断标准】Diagnostic Criteria

(1)符合人格障碍的诊断标准;

in conformity with the diagnostic criteria of personality disorder.

(2)以猜疑和偏执为特点,并至少有下列3项:

characterized by distrust and suspiciousness, and present as indicated by three (or more) of the following areas:

①对挫折和遭遇过度敏感;(ICD)

excessive sensitivity to setbacks and rebuffs.

②对侮辱和伤害不能宽容,长期耿耿于怀;(ICD)

unforgiving of insults and injures, persistently bears grudges.

③多疑,容易将别人的中性或友好行为误解为敌意或轻视;(ICD)

suspiciousness and a pervasive tendency to distort experience by misconstruing the neutral or friendly actions of others as hostile or contemptuous

④明显超过实际情况所需的好斗对个人权利执意追求;

distinctly exceeding aggression and obsessive pursue of personal power.

⑤易有病理性嫉妒,过分怀疑恋人有新欢或伴侣不忠,但不是妄想;(ICD/2)

pathological envy, excessive suspicions regarding fidelity of spouse or partner, but doesn’t account for paranoid.

⑥过分自负和自我中心的倾向,总感觉受压制、被迫害,甚至上告、上访,不达目的不肯罢休;

excessive self-importance and self-center, preoccupied with doubts about being oppressed  or suppressed, persistently appeals to higher court or authorities.

⑦具有将其周围或外界事件解释为“阴谋”等的非现实性优势观念,因此过分警惕和抱有敌意。(ICD/2)

perceives external environments and events as “conspiracy” or other unrealistic dominant ideas, hence excessively hostile and hypervigilant.

编码:60.2      分裂样人格障碍 Schizoid personality disorder  [F60.1]

诊断标准:以观念、行为和外貌装饰的奇特、情感冷漠,及人际关系明显缺陷为特点。男性略多于女性。

characterized by eccentric perceptions, behaviors and dresses, emotional coldness, and distinct interpersonal deficits. slightly more common in males.

【诊断标准】Diagnostic Criteria

(1)符合人格障碍的诊断标准;

in conformity with the diagnostic criteria of personality disorder.

(2)以观念、行为和外貌装饰的奇特、情感冷淡,及人际关系缺陷为特点,并至少有下列3项:

characterized by eccentric perceptions, behaviors and dresses, emotional coldness and  interpersonal deficits, and present as indicated by three (or more) of the following areas:

①性格明显内向(孤独、被动、退缩),与家庭和社会疏远,除生活或工作中必须接触的人外,基本不与他人主动交往,缺少知心朋友,过分沉湎于幻想和内省;(ICD/2)

distinctly introvert (isolated, passive, withdrawal), detached from family and society; except for necessary living and working contact, rarely initiates social interaction; lack of close friends, preoccupation with fantasy and introspection.

②表情呆板,情感冷淡,甚至不通人情,不能表达对他人的关心、体贴,及愤怒等;

flat facial expression, emotional coldness, or even unreasonable in dealing with people; unable to express caring, considerate, anger and so on.

③对赞扬和批评反应差或无动于衷;(ICD)

Indifference to either praise  or criticism.

④缺乏愉快感;(ICD/2)

lack of sense of pleasure.

⑤缺乏亲密、信任的人际关系;(ICD/2)

lack of intimate and trustful interpersonal relationship.

⑥在遵循社会规范方面存在困难,导致行为怪异;

difficulty in conforming to social norms, which leads to peculiar behaviors.

⑦对与他人之间的性活动不感兴趣(考虑年龄)。(ICD)

lack of desire for sexual experiences with another person (given age).

编码:60.3      反社会性人格障碍 Dissocial personality disorder  [F60.2]

诊断标准:以行为不符合社会规范,经常违法乱纪,对人冷酷无情为特点,男性多于女性。本组病人往往在童年或少年期(18岁前)就出现品行问题。成年后(指18岁后)习性不改,主要表现行为不符合社会规范,甚至违法乱纪。

characterized by failure to conform to social norms, regularly violating laws and rules, and callous unconcern for others; more common in males. The patient usually has conduct issues before age 18, and the habit is carried into adulthood (after age 18). The main pattern is failure to conform to social norms, or even violating laws and rules.

【诊断标准】

(1)符合人格障碍的诊断标准,并至少有下列3项:

in conformity with the diagnostic criteria of personality disorder, and present as indicated by three (or more) of the following areas:

①严重和长期不负责任,无视社会常规、准则、义务等,如不能维持长久的工作(或学习),经常旷工(或旷课)、多次无计划地变换工作;有违反社会规范的行为,且这些行为已构成拘捕的理由(不管拘捕与否);(ICD/2)

gross and persistent attitude of irresponsibility and disregard for social norms, rules, and obligations. (i.e. unable to maintain long-term job or school, regular truant from job or school, changing job without planning ahead; violating social norms, and the conduct has constituted the cause of arrest.)

②行动无计划或有冲动性,如进行事先未计划的旅行;

planless or impulsive behaviors (i.e. trip without planning ahead)

③不尊重事实,如经常撒谎、欺骗他人,以获得个人利益;(DSM)

deceitfulness, repeated lying, use of aliases, cunning others for personal profit or pleasure.

④对他人漠不关心,如经常不承担经济义务、拖欠债务、不瞻养子女或父母;

irresponsible to others (i.e. refuse to honor financial obligations, repay debts, or provide for children or parents.)

⑤不能维持与他人的长久的关系,如不能维持长久的(1年以上)夫妻关系;(ICD)

Incapacity to maintain enduring relationships (i.e. unable to maintain marriage for more than 1 year.)

⑥很容易责怪他人,或对其与社会相冲突的行为进行无理辩解;(ICD)

markedly prone to blame  others or to offer plausible rationalizations  for the behavior bringing the subject into social conflict.

⑦对挫折的耐受性低,微小刺激便可引起冲动,甚至暴力行为;(ICD)

very low tolerance to frustration and a low threshold for discharge of aggression, including violence.

⑧易激惹,并有暴力行为,如反复斗殴或攻击别人,包括无故殴打配偶或子女;(ICD/2)

highly irritable, has violent behaviors (i.e. repeated physical fights including beating spouse or children without reason.)

⑨危害别人时缺少内疚感,不能从经验,特别是在受到惩罚的经验中获益;(ICD)

incapacity to experience guilt  and to profit from experience, particularly punishment.

(2)在18岁前有品行障碍的证据,至少有下列3项:

evidences of conduct disorder before age 18 present as indicated by three (or more) of the following areas:

①反复违反家规或校规;

repeatedly violates family or school rules.

②反复说谎(不是为了躲避体罚);

repeated lying (not to avoid physical punishment).

③习惯性吸烟,喝酒;

habitual smoking or drinking.

④虐待动物或弱小同伴;

has been physically cruel to animal or weak peers.

⑤反复偷窃;

repeated stealing.

⑥经常逃学;

is often truant from school.

⑦至少有2次未向家人说明外出过夜;

has stayed out at night without explaining to family members at least twice.

⑧过早发生性活动;

premature sexual activity.

⑨多次参与破坏公共财物活动;

has repeatedly engaged in destroying public property.

⑩反复挑起或参与斗殴;

has repeatedly provoked or engaged in physical fights.

(11)被学校开除过,或因行为不轨而至少停学一次;

has been expelled or suspended from school due to conduct against rules.

(12)被拘留或被公安机关管教过。

has been detained or disciplined by public security.

编码:60.4      冲动性人格障碍(攻击性人格障碍) Impulsive personality disorder [F60.30]

诊断标准:以情感爆发,伴明显行为冲动为特征,男性明显多于女性。

characterized by emotional explosion with distinct impulsive behavior, more common in males.

【诊断标准】

(1)符合人格障碍的诊断标准;

in conformity with the diagnostic criteria of personality disorder.

(2)以情感爆发和明显的冲动行为作为主要表现,并至少有下列3项:

characterized by emotional explosion with distinct impulsive behavior, and present as indicated by three (or more) of the following areas:

①易与他人发生争吵和冲突,特别在冲动行为受阻或受到批评时;(ICD)

marked tendency to quarrelsome behavior and to conflicts with others, especially when impulsive acts are thwarted or criticized.

②有突发的愤怒和暴力倾向,对导致的冲动行为不能自控;(ICD)

liability to outbursts of anger  or violence, with inability to control the resulting behavioral explosions.

③对事物的计划和预见能力明显受损;

distinctly impaired ability to plan and foresee.

④不能坚持任何没有即刻奖励的行为;(ICD)

difficulty in maintaining any course of action that offers no immediate reward

⑤不稳定的和反复无常的心境;(ICD)

unstable and capricious mood.

⑥自我形象、目的,及内在偏好(包括性欲望)的紊乱和不确定;(ICD)

disturbances in and uncertainty about self-image, aims, and internal preferences (including sexual)

⑦容易产生人际关系的紧张或不稳定,时常导致情感危机;(ICD)

liability to become involved in intense and unstable relationships, often leading to emotional crisis.

⑧经常出现自杀、自伤行为。(ICD/2)

recurrent threats or acts of self-harm or suicide.

编码:60.5表演性(癔症性)人格障碍 Histrionic (hysterical )personality disorder [F60.4]

诊断标准:以过分的感情用事或夸张言行吸引他人的注意为特点。

Characterized by excessive emotionality and attention-seeking behavior.

【诊断标准】

(1)符合人格障碍的诊断标准;

in conformity with the diagnostic criteria of personality disorder.

(2)以过分的感情用事或夸张言行,吸引他人的注意为特点,并至少有下列3项:

characterized by excessive emotionality and attention-seeking behavior, and present as indicated by three (or more) of the following areas:

①富于自我表演性、戏剧性、夸张性地表达情感;(ICD)

self-dramatization, theatricality, exaggerated expression of emotions.

②肤浅和易变的情感;(ICD)

shallow and labile affectivity.

③自我中心,自我放纵和不为他人着想;

self-centered, self-indulging without consideration of others.

④追求刺激和以自己为注意中心的活动;(ICD)

continual seeking for excitement and activities in which the patient is the center of attention.

⑤不断渴望受到赞赏,情感易受伤害;

persistent longing for praise, emotionally vulnerable.

⑥过分关心躯体的性感,以满足自己的需要;(ICD/2)

over-concern with physical attractiveness to satisfy one’s own needs.

⑦暗示性高,易受他人影响。(ICD)

suggestibility, easily influenced by others.

编码:60.6      强迫性人格障碍 Anankastic personality disorder [F60.5]

诊断标准:以过分的谨小慎微、严格要求与完美主义,及内心的不安全感为特征。男性多于女性2倍,约70%强迫症病人有强迫性人格障碍。

characterized by excessive need of carefulness, orderliness, and perfectionism, and strong internal sense of insecurity; more common in males (2 times of females), 70% of OCD patients have anankastic personality disorder.

【诊断标准】

(1)符合人格障碍的诊断标准;

in conformity with the diagnostic criteria of personality disorder.

(2)以过分的谨小慎微、严格要求与完美主义,及内心的不安全感为特征,并至少有下列3项:

characterized by excessive demand of carefulness, orderliness, and perfectionism, and strong internal sense of insecurity, and present as indicated by three (or more) of the following areas:

①因个人内心深处的不安全感导致优柔寡断、怀疑,及过分谨慎;

indecisiveness, suspiciousness and exceeding carefulness caused by internal sense of insecurity.

②需在很早以前就对所有的活动作出计划并不厌其烦;

need of repetitively planning ahead for every activity.

③凡事需反复核对,因对细节的过分注意,以致忽视全局;(ICD/2)

repetitively checks everything, preoccupied with details up to the point of ignoring the overall situation.

④经常被讨厌的思想或冲动所困扰,但尚未达到强迫症的程度;

distress caused by recurrent intrusive thoughts and impulses, but hasn’t reach the criteria of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

⑤过分谨慎多虑、过分专注于工作成效而不顾个人消遣,及人际关系;(ICD)

excessive conscientiousness, scrupulousness, and undue preoccupation with productivity to the exclusion of pleasure and interpersonal relationships.

⑥刻板和固执,要求别人按其规矩办事;(ICD)

rigidity and stubbornness, insistence by the individual that others submit exactly to his or her way of doing things.

⑦因循守旧、缺乏表达温情的能力。

distinctly conservative, lack of ability to express interpersonal warmth.

编码:60.7      焦虑性人格障碍 Anxious personality disorder [F60.6]

诊断标准:以一贯感到紧张、提心吊胆、不安全,及自卑为特征,总是需要被人喜欢和接纳,对拒绝和批评过分敏感,因习惯性地夸大日常处境中的潜在危险,而有回避某些活动的倾向。

characterized by persistent feeling of tension, anxiety and fear, sense of insecurity, and feelings of inadequacy; need of being liked and accepted, hypersensitive to rejection and criticism; marked tendency in avoiding certain activities due to habitually exaggeration of potential dangers in one’s daily environment.

【诊断标准】Diagnostic Criteria

(1)符合人格障碍的诊断标准;

in conformity with the diagnostic criteria of personality disorder.

(2)以持久和广泛的内心紧张,及忧虑体验为特征,并至少有下列3项:

characterized by persistent and general feeling of tension and feeling of anxiety, and present as indicated by three (or more) of the following areas:

①一贯的自我敏感、不安全感,及自卑感;

persistent self-sensitivity, sense of insecurity and feelings of inadequacy.

②对遭排斥和批评过分敏感;(ICD/2)

hypersensitive to criticism and rejection.

③不断追求被人接受和受到欢迎;

persistently pursues being accepted and welcomed.

④除非得到保证被他人所接受和不会受到批评,否则拒绝与他人建立人际关系;(ICD/2)

unwillingness to become involved with people unless certain of being accepted and not being criticized.

⑤惯于夸大生活中潜在的危险因素,达到回避某种活动的程度,但无恐惧性回避;

habitually exaggerates potential dangers in life to the point of avoiding certain activities, but not due to phobia.

⑥因“稳定”和“安全”的需要,生活方式受到限制。(ICD/2)

restrictions in lifestyle because of need to have security and stableness.

编码:60.8      依赖性人格障碍 Dependent personality disorder [F60.7]

【诊断标准】Diagnostic Criteria

(1)符合人格障碍的诊断标准;

in conformity with the diagnostic criteria of personality disorder.

(2)以过分依赖为特征,并至少有下列3项:

characterized by excessively dependent, and present as indicated by three (or more) of the following areas:

①要求或让他人为自己生活的重要方面承担责任;(ICD/2)

require or allow others to take responsibility for the patient’s important aspect of life.

②将自己的需要附属于所依赖的人,过分地服从他人的意志;(ICD)

subordination of one’s own needs to those of others on whom one is dependent, and undue compliance with their wishes.

③不愿意对所依赖的人提出即使是合理的要求;(ICD)

unwillingness to make even reasonable demands on the people one depends on.

④感到自己无助、无能,或缺乏精力;

feeling helpless, inadequate, or lack of energy.

⑤沉湎于被遗忘的恐惧之中,不断要求别人对此提出保证,独处时感到很难受;(ICD/2)

preoccupation with fears of being abandoned, persistently asking for guarantee, feeling uncomfortable being alone.

⑥当与他人的亲密关系结束时,有被毁灭和无助的体验;

feeling helpless and destroyed when ending an intimate relationship.

⑦经常把责任推给别人,以应对逆境。

push one’s responsibility to others in facing difficulty.

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One Comment

  1. 每个人都有点人格障碍